Can Evolution Repeat Itself?

first_imgA press release from University of Chicago reported today that “115-million-year-old fossil of a tiny egg-laying mammal thought to be related to the platypus provides compelling evidence of multiple origins of acute hearing in humans and other mammals” (emphasis added in all quotes). The fossil apparently shows inner-ear bones in the monotreme lineage that supposedly diverged from the reptile-like ancestors of both marsupial and placental mammals.Many paleontologists have doubted that such a seemingly complex adaptation could have originated more than once in mammals, but according to the authors of the paper, the evidence of T. trusleri [the reported shrew-size fossil] indicates that it did. “Nothing like that has ever been found before,” said Tom Rich, PhD, lead author of the paper and curator of vertebrate paleontology at Museum Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.They are claiming that the middle ear bones needed for acute hearing arose twice, independently, within mammals. “How can this supposedly rare and unexpected evolutionary change have occurred so commonly in early mammals?” the press release asks. James Hopson, one of the authors of the paper in Science,1 describes how this might have unfolded:“Recent studies of jaw and ear function in primitive mammal-like reptiles indicate that the larger angular bone may have supported an eardrum while still part of the lower jaw,” Hopson said. But once the dentary bone made a new jaw hinge with the skull in the immediate predecessor of mammals, the accessory jawbones may have abandoned their job of supporting the jaw and evolved exclusively into the middle ear sound-transmitting function.Hopson adds that “Only the evidence of fossils has been able to unravel this tangled history of a complex adaptation.” The only fossil evidence alluded to, however, is T. trusleri and extinct “mammal-like reptiles” without the adaptation, compared with living mammals and the platypus. The scientific paper itself is not sure the transition is clear: “because of the uncertain phylogenetic positions of these taxa with respect to true mammals (monotremes and theriiforms), none provides unequivocal support for the multiple origin of the definitive mammalian middle ear bones” – they only “suggest” the “possibility” of the idea. The paper also discusses uncertainty about the phylogeny of all these groups, and only provisionally builds its case based on one expert’s opinion, “because it is in accord with the polyphyletic origin of the definitive mammalian middle ear but requires the least amount of homoplasy in comparison with other proposed phylogenetic placements of monotremes.” Martin and Luo in Science2 call this a “remarkable example of homoplastic evolution” (another term for convergent evolution, or the supposed independent evolution of similar structures). They call homoplasy a “major feature of evolutionary morphology.” This find, they say, answers a “fascinating but very difficult question facing evolutionary biologists” – that is, “whether a complex structure would be less likely than a simple structure to undergo independent homoplastic evolution.” From the tone of these articles, the only thing not in question by this find is evolution itself.1Rich et al., “Independent Origins of Middle Ear Bones in Monotremes and Therians,” Science, Vol 307, Issue 5711, 910-914 , 11 February 2005, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1105717].2Thomas Martin and Zhe-Xi Luo, “Homoplasy in the Mammalian Ear,” Science, Vol 307, Issue 5711, 861-862, 11 February 2005, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1107202].As always, the independent variable in this equation is Darwinian evolution. Everything else must adjust to keep the story going. Improbabilities? No problem; just create new words like homoplasy that sound scientific, and toss a little pixie dust of natural selection to corral the lucky mutations for engineering complex systems as required. This story looks uglier and uglier the more you peer below the surface to see the shenanigans the Darwin Party is pulling to make their pet theory look good in the face of monstrous problems. Take away the assumption of evolution and they have no leg to stand on. Time to blow the whistle on this scandal.(Visited 29 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Sunwell Brazilian Virgin Lace Closure Human Hair Straight Free Part 4×4 Remy Lace Top Closure – After reading a number of reviews about this hair I felt like I should give it a try and was confident

first_img In excellent condition, very soft and looks very good would definitely buy from here again. I recently purchased a brazilian lace closure from shunwei and i received the product in great condition as it was as described, silky, straight moreover with bleached knots. Since then i have colored the hair and it is still as silky as the day i recieved it, with no shedding at all. I will be purchasing from them again and i would recommend anyone to buy their hair products from shunwei. Was so good even after wash definitely get it again and the price too. Beautiful ,arrived on timethanks sunwell. Is this a wig because i want a wig. I was very sceptical about ordering hair on amazon as i normally buy from ali express but i needed hair asap. After reading a number of reviews about this hair i felt like i should give it a try and was confident in buying. Hair came quickly (next day delivery if you have prime) hair feels lovely and soft lovely and is true to length and 1b colour (i was scared that it would come out a 2 as some sellers say 1b then when the hair comes it is more of a brown). The hair as no harsh smell which is good but always remember to wash your bundles before you install it anyway. One thing i will say is that if you are buying longer lengths of hair double it up as the longer the length the thinner the bundles. So for example if you buy 20 inch buy x2 so you can get it thicker of course if you prefer much thinner hair then that is fine. I have not installed the hair yet but i hope when i do it stays lovely for a long time. Here are the specifications for the Sunwell Brazilian Virgin Lace Closure Human Hair Straight Free Part 4×4 Remy Lace Top Closure:Factory Direct Sales, High Quality and Cheap Lace Closure. Grade 7A Brazilian Virgin Human Hair Lace Closure with Baby Hair, Natural and Healthy, No Tangle, No Shedding, No Smell.Hair Texture: Silky Straight Free Part Virgin Hair Closure. Hair Color: Natural Color, Can be Dyed and Curled According to Your Choice.Lace Size: 4×4″ Swiss Lace Medium Brown, Invisible Part Closure, Can be Bleached, Durable and Strong.Hair Density: 130% Density Remy Lace Closure, 25g-65g/pc, Full and Thick. Hair Length: 8inch-20inch. Please stretch the Human Hair Closure to BE STRAIGHT when measure it.The Registered Trademark & Reliable Brand, NOT AUTHORIZED any Other Seller to Sell. Easy to install and can be matched to your chose of hair weave. Just choose Lace Top Closure what you want. SummaryReviewer Nathalie DuboisReview Date2018-06-19 05:27:48Reviewed Item Sunwell Brazilian Virgin Lace Closure Human Hair Straight Free Part 4×4 Remy Lace Top Closure with Baby Hair Can be Bleached 130% Density Natural Color 8″Rating 5.0 / 5 stars, based on 13 reviews Posted on June 19, 2018Author Nathalie DuboisCategories Hair ExtensionsTags Sunwell Really soft and no shedding so far but the parting is uneven and really difficult to fix. Very good product, according to my wife who used it. Reviews from purchasers :After reading a number of reviews about this hair I felt like I should give it a try and was confident 100% GREAT QUALITYBeautiful, arrived on time Thankslast_img read more

Scott Metzger, May 22

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest We started back in planting last Monday after two or three weeks. You could row the corn this morning already.We got done with everything for the first planting on Saturday and started replanting beans on Saturday. We had those big rains earlier and corn really struggled. That corn we planted the week of April 23 through 27, it was three weeks before it was up really good. We planted our Plenish beans that week too and all of those acres need another 125,000 on them because the beans couldn’t push through the ground crusting over. Most of that was on patterned tile ground too.We were fortunate with our 500 or 600 acres of corn we planted that week of April 23 and we only had about 40 acres that we needed to spot in. Some of that rotted, some of it leafed out underground and some of it just disappeared in the white clay.There are always a couple of days every year you shouldn’t plant and this year those days were April 27 and 28 before we got four inches of rain. The next couple of weeks we got more small rains and cool weather. We didn’t get good drying days until the week before last.We had a great run this last week and then Saturday we ended up getting a half inch to 1.2 inches. We needed about a half inch or so just to keep things going. East of us 10 miles it didn’t rain at all. I really feel for the guys west of us that have really been hammered with rain this spring.This area has been a really big replant area. There were a lot of guys jamming in crops that week of April 23. A lot of that corn planted on the 28th got torn out. We were fortunate we didn’t have to replant that much.Wheat is coming along really well. There were some early varieties starting in on the blister stage in the area. I would say by June 12 or 15 we will probably be in wheat harvest around here, unless it cools off. It looks pretty good.The new hog barn we put up is just a little over half full and everything seems to be running alright. They look to have it at full capacity here in the next couple of weeks.On our early-planted soybeans the bean leaf beetles are just running rampant. The one early field is the worst because it is the only field of beans planted in that area. They have had a feeding frenzy on them. We have had a little Pythium in the beans too.last_img read more

Financial Planning for a PCS

first_imgBy Carol ChurchWhen Permanent Change of Station (PCS) orders come in, military families may experience mixed feelings such as excitement, fear, or anticipation. While it may be a way of life, it isn’t always an easy one. iStock-495773568 purchased by MFLN from under member ID 18347305 16 Jan 2019 Return to article. Long DescriptionLearn more about the PCS Series of webinars focused on issues military families face during transitions: aspect of a PCS that can be challenging and stressful is the financial preparations. It’s true that the military makes many efforts to reimburse families, but there are still many potential pitfalls along the way. How can military families avoid getting burned by the many expenses of moving households? Experienced families have mentioned these hidden costs to keep in mind:When selling a home: staging, cleaning, home improvements and advertising the home sale. Also consider possible fees when selecting a real estate agent and the possible need to continue paying the mortgage and other housing bills.If using a rental house and leaving long-term take into consideration any repair costs to avoid losing the deposit.The costs for veterinary care before departure and the high cost to fly a pet to a distant location (overseas is especially expensive).New clothes or other new necessities for a different climate and lifestyle.Building up a new pantry and purchasing new household items and cleaning products.Costs associated with selling one’s car and purchasing a new one if needed, or for storing a car.Deposits for housing and utilities.Startup costs for other services such as cable and internet.Fast food and convenience food during the chaos before and after the move.Cost of enrolling children in a new daycare, after school care program, and activities.Short-term lodging costs: this is sometimes a factor, even though the military will cover this to a point.Taken all together, this can really add up! So, how can families best handle this hit to the budget? Here are a few ideas:Sell excess household goods on Craigslist or eBay, or hold a yard sale (families will need to purge anyway) Make a budget and save in advance. Well before the change, families should do their best to figure out how much they’ll need to save and start putting money into a “PCS fund” to make up for any shortfall and to cover up-front costs. (An emergency fund is certainly a backup, but not the best way to handle this.) When there’s a plan in place, the costs are far less likely to take a family by surprise.For more on PCSing and PCS budgeting and benefits, visit the links below.PCS OverviewFiguring Your PCS/OCONUS Travel ExpensesPCS FAQsPCS Toolkit Insure belongings: It’s important to take documentary photos of valuable items and write down the serial numbers before packing.center_img Consider selling a car even if this was not the original plan, especially if PCSing overseas Research benefits ahead of time, and don’t forget to save receipts! The military provides an almost dizzying array of benefits to families who are PCSing, including money for mileage put on cars, money for meals and lodging, temporary lodging expenses, and more. They’re also eligible for advances in pay. Families shouldn’t pay a penny more than they have to. Try a DITY move: Families can earn quite a bit of extra cash by “DIY”ing at least some of their move, either by packing it all up themselves and driving a rented moving van, or by independently hiring a moving company to pack and ship their stuff. It’s often a better deal to hire the company (and easier, too!). Check the Personally Procured Move Estimator.last_img read more

Why Selling Is More Difficult Now

first_imgThis ain’t your daddy’s sale game. And it wasn’t easy for him.It’s more difficult to command time. It’s more difficult than ever to gain an appointment with your dream client. They’re busier than they’ve ever been. They are being called on by more of your competitors, and they are being called more frequently. Your dream client has more trouble discerning the value creator from the time waster.You need to improve how you prospect by being more direct and more compelling.It’s more difficult to gain access to stakeholders. If it’s difficult to get time with one contact within your dream client’s company, it’s more difficult by a magnitude to gain access to all of the people who influence a buying decision, including the executive you need to support your deal. More still, the decision-maker that brings you in fears giving you access because she knows it will only bring to light the difficult questions they’ve wrestled with unsuccessfully in the past.You need to improve your ability to gain access and build consensus.It’s more difficult to gain the right investment. Your dream clients want better results. They need to improve, and they need partners who provide them some competitive advantage. But then they struggle to make the necessary investment that would produce those results. Many, if not most, of your competitors promise to deliver more at a lower price, reinforcing the big lie that you can have better, faster, and cheaper all in one package.You must improve your willingness and your ability to move from price to cost, from transactional to consultative. You have to move to trust and value.It’s more difficult to make a difference. The problems your dream clients deal with are systemic. Their challenges are greater, and they struggle to find a path forward because there are no easy answers. They trust their problems more than they trust you and your solution because they are afraid of making their problems worse, they are afraid of committing to a path, and they are afraid of what they will be required to do to execute a new plan.You must become a trusted advisor. You have to commit to helping your dream clients through the process of changing.Selling is more difficult because the outcomes are more difficult now. It takes a bigger salesperson to sell effectively and to deliver value.last_img read more

Fajardo: San Miguel can’t start flat again

first_imgEthel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Conflict of schedule reason for nat’l team departure, says Daquis Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netSan Miguel may have won handily in Game 2 of the 2017 PBA Commissioner’s Cup Finals, 102-88, on Friday, but June Mar Fajardo remains wary against a motivated TNT side ahead of Game 3.“We didn’t expect this. But TNT is a strong team so we have to focus on our game plan for the next game,” he said in Filipino.ADVERTISEMENT Cayetano to unmask people behind ‘smear campaign’ vs him, SEA Games WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garage World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide MOST READ Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’center_img Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Though San Miguel equalized the best-of-seven series to one game apiece, Fajardo noted that there are areas of concern for the team.The biggest fault in the Beermen’s game was their lackadaisical start, where they fell to an early 17-0 hole before Arwind Santos came off the bench and spurred the rally.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“That’s one thing. We can’t start flat in the first quarter. If we could go hard, we should go hard immediately. We’re just lucky we still got the win,” he said.Fajardo, though, commended San Miguel’s defense after that forgettable six minute-stretch to open hostilities. What ‘missteps’? LATEST STORIES 1 dead in Cavite blast, fire Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken Locking down on defense after that sluggish start, the Beermen reversed the roles in the second frame, holding the KaTropa scoreless for seven minutes as they grabbed the lead and never looked back.“We had a better defense and it’s credit to my teammates,” he said. “They saw that I’m having a hard time defending TNT’s import and they helped me. Our coaching staff had a good adjustment, and kuya JayR (Reyes) and kuya Yancy (de Ocampo) taught me on how to defend the import better.”After two games, Fajardo knows the series is bound to be a chess match and San Miguel is expected to also make adjustments to be in a better position to snag the all-important Game 3 on Sunday.“We were able to adjust from what they did in Game 1, so we expect them to do the same for the next game. We’ll see what we can do more for Game 3,” he said.ADVERTISEMENT View commentslast_img read more

Hanjins Move Displays Container Carriers Breaking Points

first_imgzoom The impending bankruptcy of Korea’s container carrier Hanjin Shipping should serve as a warning that carriers do have breaking points and that they will not always be rescued, shipping consultancy Drewry said.In 2009 when the container industry posted operating losses of nearly USD 20 billion and many lines were said to be minutes from bankruptcy, none died. The “zombie” carriers’ survival methods were varied and complex, ranging from off-hiring ships to requesting government support, but ultimately they worked.“Having survived the worst crisis the industry has ever faced the assumption grew in strength that major carriers could not be killed off,” Drewry said, adding that some smaller players have fallen by the wayside this decade, however, none were remotely in the same league as Hanjin Shipping, which with a containership fleet of around 100 ships and total capacity of 620,000 TEU ranks it seventh in the world.Hanjin’s move into administration shatters the complacency that major carriers are immune to failure and can stomach prolonged years of low rates and financial losses.The company was in financial trouble as its operating loss amounted to approximately USD 580 million from 2010 to the first-half 2016, with most of the damage emanating from the container division.While Hanjin’s compatriot Hyundai Merchant Marine (HMM) negotiated a debt restructuring plan, which included reduced charter rates, sale of non-core assets and reaching a deal to join 2M carriers Maersk Line and MSC in a new alliance next April, Hanjin’s self-rescue plan has not proceeded as smoothly as over at HMM.Vessel charterers, most publically Seaspan, refused to lower their rates and despite selling a number of assets the plan to sell two tranches of new shares to sister company Korean Air fell short of raising the sums expected by creditors.The lack of progress led to Hanjin’s directors calling for court receivership on August 31.“While the company is not technically bankrupt during administration it is difficult to see how the company will be able to continue trading as customers are now desperately trying to locate and find alternative ways for their goods to be delivered. It’s unlikely any would entrust their cargoes to Hanjin again,” Drewry said.Drewry added that the immediate collateral damage of Hanjin’s situation would be widespread.Ports and terminals that have recently accepted Hanjin ships and containers will not only lose a customer but might not get paid for work carried out; the same applies to container lessors, and charter shipowners, particularly Seaspan and Danaos, which were Hanjin’s biggest suppliers of non-owned ships.Furthermore, shippers unaffected by Hanjin’s situation are expected to feel a short-term shock as the reduction of capacity will inflate freight rates. Notwithstanding the general rate increases (GRIs) already in-place freight rates out of Asia surged the day after Hanjin’s announcement. The World Container Index reported that spot rates from Shanghai to Los Angeles in the US and Rotterdam in Europe, increased by 42% and 39%, respectively, on September 1 against the previous week.“Perhaps the most far-reaching consequence of Hanjin’s situation, alongside the recent defensive M&A activity, will be that all stakeholders will now finally understand that carriers cannot survive on a diet of ultra-low freight rates if they want to see healthy competition,” Drewry concluded.last_img read more

Five questions for Ohio State – Michigan

Do Ohio State players realize how impressive their streak of dominance against the “team up north” is? OSU has won eight of nine games against Michigan since coach Jim Tressel took over, including six in a row. Center Mike Brewster said part of the reason for the team’s success against the Maize and Blue is that the players never stop thinking about the game. “The Michigan thing, it’s always on our mind, even since camp, when we have our Maize and Blue period,” Brewster said. “That’s always very important to us.” Also at stake this year is a record-tying sixth consecutive Big Ten championship, which would be No. 35 in OSU football history. Will OSU approach Wisconsin-like rushing numbers against an overmatched Wolverine defense? Last week against Wisconsin, Michigan gave up 357 yards rushing even though the Badgers played without running back John Clay, reigning Big Ten Offensive Player of the Year. At one point, the Badgers ran the ball 28 consecutively against the Wolverines. Expect more of the same on Saturday against the nation’s No. 92 rush defense. Running back Dan “Boom” Herron could extend his streak of 10 straight games with a touchdown and cross the 1,000-yard threshold this season. How long can Denard Robinson keep Michigan in the game? One thing the Wolverines have going for them is quarterback Denard Robinson, their one-man offensive wrecking crew. Last week, Robinson became the first player in NCAA history to pass for 1,500 yards and rush for 1,500 yards in the same season. He leads the Big Ten in rushing and has accounted for 30 total touchdowns this year. Tressel knows his defense faces a tall task in containing the 6-foot, 190-pound sophomore from Deerfield Beach, Fla. “He’s got great quickness. He’s tough and he’s got a live arm,” Tressel said. “He’s hard to get on the ground. He’s just a great player.” Is this Rich Rodriguez’s last trip to Columbus as Michigan’s coach? Michigan athletic director Dave Brandon is running out of reasons to keep Rodriguez, who has a career record of 15-20 and a dreadful 6-17 conference record. He’s winless against OSU and Michigan State, the program’s top two rivals. However, this season has brought small improvement. At 7-4, the Wolverines are bowl-eligible for the first time under Rodriguez. On the other hand, a blowout loss to OSU, coupled with a poor bowl game showing, might be enough for Michigan to move in another direction. What would an OSU win mean for the team’s BCS bowl hopes? Unless Wisconsin falls to Northwestern on Saturday, OSU likely won’t play in the Rose Bowl. Not only did the Badgers beat the Buckeyes, but they also rank ahead of OSU in the BCS standings. Even if OSU was to beat the Wolverines by 80, it probably wouldn’t be enough to jump Wisconsin. However, a win for OSU on Saturday virtually assures the team of another BCS bowl appearance, possibly the Sugar Bowl, making it OSU’s eighth BCS appearance in 10 years under Tressel. read more